Download 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: by Neal H. Atebara, MD PDF

By Neal H. Atebara, MD

Discusses present functions of optical phenomena, together with the optical foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. offers optics of the human eye; simple thoughts of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and make contact with lenses. Discusses imaginative and prescient rehabilitation from the epidemiology of imaginative and prescient impairment, type of visible functionality deficits, sufferer overview and occasional imaginative and prescient administration. final significant revision 2009 2010.

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Additional info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course)

Example text

B, A narrow-band pass filter absorbs all but a narrow portion of the spectrum (solid waves) but, in doing so, absorbs muc h of the light energy. C, Directionality and coherence are improved by the addition of a pinhole aperture, but still more energy is lost; a lens system co llects some of the light and brings it to a f ocus. D, A laser emits monochromatic. directional, coherent light that is readily collected by a lens system and brought to a much smaller focal area. Compared wi th the incandescent source, the power and irradiance of the laser system are many orders of magnit ude greater.

In an early cataract, large molecules in the lens structure cause scattering. Anterior chamber flare is caused by protein in the aqueous humor (Tyndall effect). Such scattering material interferes with vision in 2 ways. The primary effect is that of glare, starbursts, and halos. For example, when light from a source such as the sun or an oncoming headlight reaches the eye, a fraction of the light scattered within the ocular media falls on the retina. That which falls in the foveal area reduces the contrast and tends to obscure detail in the image of interest.

Refractive index also va ries with wavelength. As discussed earlier in this text, physical optics regards light in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves. The visual system perceives diffe rent wavelengths of light as different colors. Long wavelengths appear red, intermediate wavelengths appear yellow or green , and short wavelengths appear blue. In a vacuum, all wavelengths travel at the same speed. In any other medi um, short wavelengths usually travel more slowly than long wavelengths. This phenomenon is called dispersion.

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