By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Hermann D. Schubert MD
Presents an outline of the constitution and serve as of the retina and its courting to the pigment epithelium, choroid and vitreous. Describes the key vitreoretinal problems and applicable diagnostic equipment and remedy principles.
In its final significant revision, part 12 used to be re-organized into 3 components. Separate chapters are actually dedicated to age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, together with the most recent imaging concepts and choroidal element. chosen healing themes contain laser remedy and vitreoretinal surgery.
Upon of completion of part 12, readers might be capable to:
Select acceptable tools of exam and ancillary reviews for the prognosis of vitreoretinal disorders
Describe the rules of clinical and surgical operation of vitreoretinal disorders
Incorporate facts from significant potential medical trials within the administration of chosen vitreoretinal issues
Read Online or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous PDF
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Additional resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous
Electrophysiologic Testing in Disorders of the Retina, Optic Nerve, and Visual Pathway. Ophthalmology Monograph 2. 2nd ed. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2001. Ogden TE. Clinical electrophysiology. In: Ryan SJ, Hinton DR, Schachat AP, Wilkinson CP, eds. Retina. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Mosby; 2006:351-371. Electroretinogram Recording and Interpreting the Response The clinical ERG is a mass response evoked from the entire retina by a brief flash of light. Five different responses are the basis of most clinical evaluations and are standardized internationally so that ERG results can be interpreted easily at different medical centers (Fig 3-1): 1.
Maximal combined response (dark-adapted) 33 1 .. _ T T T T Diagram of the 5 basic ERG responses defined by the International Standard for Electroretinography. These waveforms and calibrations are exemplary only, as there is a moderate range of normal values. The large arrowheads indicate the stimu lus flash, and the dashed lines show how to measure a-wave and b-wave amplitude and time-to-peak (implicit time, ,). The implicit time of a flicker response is normally less than the distance between peaks for stimulation at 30 Hz.
Differences include that NIR reflectance imaging demonstrates more clearly some abnormalities of the outer retina, RPE, and Bruch membrane, as well as the presence of subretinal fluid. This difference results from the ocular tissue's different absorption characteristics for visible light versus for light of longer wavelengths such as NIR. Lesions of acute macular neuroretinopathy are extremely difficult to appreciate on fundus photographs, a characteristic of the condition, and are much more easily visible with NIR reflectance imaging.