By Dr. Gerard J. Steen, Aletta G. Dorst, J. Berenike Herrmann, Anna A. Kaal, Tina Krennmayr, Trijntje Pasma
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Extra resources for A Method for Linguistic Metaphor Identification: From MIP to MIPVU (Converging Evidence in Language and Communication Research)
When a word functions as a signal that a cross-domain mapping may be at play, mark it as a metaphor flag (MFlag). 6. 6. When a word is a new-formation coined, examine the distinct words that are its independent parts according to steps 2 through 5. 7. The use of the phrase ‘potentially explained by a cross-domain mapping’ is intentional. It should be read with an emphasis on ‘potentially’. This links up with the tenuous connection between linguistic and conceptual metaphor identification discussed in Chapter 1.
The contextual meaning, instead, is the result of a free combination of a verb plus an adverb. BNC has probably made a mistake here; the words consequently have to be analyzed as two separate lexical units. Thirdly, there is the matter of complex phrasal verbs, such as make up for or do away with. These may be easily confused with combinations of simple phrasal verbs with a preposition (make up + for or do away + with). However, they are typically listed as complete, complex phrasal verbs in the Macmillan dictionary, as run-ons after the main verb, and they can be replaced by a synonym (compensate and get rid of).
If metaphor identification is needed to analyze large chunks of discourse in a corpus in order to compare the properties and behaviour of groups of words related to metaphor across genres or speakers or situations of usage, then overall reliability need not be as high as when the aim of the research is to be certain about each and every individual case of metaphorical usage, say for the interpretation of one particular text (Scholfield 1995). When large groups of cases are compared, differences between groups of metaphorically used words merely have to be somewhat bigger in order to come out as statistically significant.