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Additional info for Application of Thermal Tech for Procg of Radioactive Waste (IAEA TECDOC 1527)
Example of a transferred torch. A non-transferred torch contains two metallic tubular electrodes (upstream and downstream of the plasma flow direction) separated by a gas injection chamber. An electrical arc flows between the negative and positive electrodes; therefore, the gas flow injected into the chamber is ionized. The result is a high temperature gas flow coming from the downstream electrode in a plasma jet. Transferred torches normally induce higher temperatures to the waste material. Power ratings typically range from 100 kW to several MW.
N2, air or O2) There are two main torch types : ⎯ ⎯ Transferred torches Non-transferred torches In transferred torches , the plasma torch transfers electrical energy from the anode to the molten slag which serves as the cathode. By this principle the energy is transferred directly and more efficiently into the waste material to be heated. An example of a transferred torch is presented in Figure 11 . 48 FIG. 11. Example of a transferred torch. A non-transferred torch contains two metallic tubular electrodes (upstream and downstream of the plasma flow direction) separated by a gas injection chamber.
The treatment of solid radioactive waste using plasma heating sources occurs in primary reaction chambers. Subsequent stages include those of thermal conversion of waste materials with formation of inorganic slag, gasification of organic components, homogenization, melting slag residue, and pouring of the melt into receiving containers. The process may be carried out either in periodic (batch loading) or continuous mode. Liquid radioactive waste may also be treated by injection into the stream of plasma gas or simultaneously with solid waste in the primary reaction chamber.