By Dan Green
Too frequently descriptions of detectors concentrate on the "what" and never the "why". This quantity goals to explain how the necessities of the physics on the huge Hadron Collider (LHC) outline the detector atmosphere. In flip, the detector offerings are made to undertake to that surroundings. The target of LHC physics is to discover the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking. as a result of minuscule cross-sections which have to be explored, 0.1 facebook, the LHC must supply a hundred fb-1/yr, or a right away luminosity of 1034 / (cm2 sec). With a number crossing period of 25 nsec, compatible to detector speeds, there'll be 25 occasions occupying every one bunch crossing. hence the physics calls for quick, finely segmented, low noise and radiation resistant detectors which supply redundant measurements of the hardly produced electrons and muons. to accomplish these pursuits, new floor was once damaged in developing the A Toroidal LHC gear (ATLAS) and Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detectors within the vertex detectors, monitoring platforms, calorimetry, powerful magnets, muon structures, entrance finish electronics, set off structures, and within the facts acquisition tools used.
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Extra resources for At the Leading Edge: The ATLAS and CMS LHC Experiments
5 is required. Indeed, the colored quarks and gluons can always radiate a gluon by the process of “ﬁnal state radiation” (FSR). 1. 5% of the time. Clearly, a limited cone size, if used to estimate the true jet energy, has a limited energy resolution due to ﬂuctuations in the energy radiated outside the cone. A Monte Carlo model of the W hadronic decay into quark pairs which then hadronizes into dijets is given in Fig. 19. Clearly, the FSR of gluons is an irreducible limitation on doing precision dijet spectroscopy in the environment of a hadron collider.
Again, discussions speciﬁc to the experiments appear in the later chapters of this volume. In fact, after the ﬁrst level of triggering, commercial oﬀ-the-shelf modules are mostly deployed. 5in — At the Leading Edge ... 40 b866-ch01 D. Green subsystems, and “farms” of commodity PCs which are used for online high level triggering and for oﬄine analysis. Thus, this is a good point to turn the exposition to the detailed choices made by ATLAS and CMS in reaching for their goal of decisively confronting the new physics which will be opened up at the LHC.
027. The barrel has 175 towers in z and 236 towers in azimuth. If there are three depth segments read out independently in order to measure the shower development in depth t, there are a total of 124,000 ECAL readout channels in the barrel alone. It is desirable to distinguish between the electromagnetically produced photons and the strongly produced, much more copious, neutral pions. The pions decay into two photons, with a typical opening angle of θ ∼ mπ /Pπ . 2 GeV give resolvable showers. At higher momenta the showers are not resolved and therefore appear to be isolated photons.