By Estibaliz Sansinenea (auth.), Estibaliz Sansinenea (eds.)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used as a biopesticide in agriculture, forestry and mosquito regulate as a result of its merits of particular toxicity opposed to aim bugs, loss of polluting residues and protection to non-target organisms. The insecticidal houses of this bacterium are as a result of insecticidal proteins produced in the course of sporulation. regardless of those ecological merits, using Bt biopesticides has lagged in the back of the factitious chemical compounds. Genetic development of Bt common traces, specifically Bt recombination, deals a promising technique of enhancing efficacy and cost-effectiveness of Bt-based bioinsecticide items to advance new biotechnological functions. however, different Bacillus species have vital biotechnological functions; one in all them is conducted by way of generating secondary metabolites, that are the examine item of normal product chemistry. the fantastic structural variability of those compounds has attracted the interest of chemists and the organic actions possessed through usual items have encouraged the pharmaceutical to go looking for lead buildings in microbial extracts. Screening of microbial extracts finds the big structural variety of typical compounds with wide organic actions, reminiscent of antimicrobial, antiviral, immunosuppressive, and antitumor actions that permit the bacterium to outlive in its average setting. those findings widen the objective variety of Bacillus spp., in specified B. thuringiensis, in addition to insecticidal task and aid humans to raised comprehend its function in soil ecosystem.
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Additional info for Bacillus thuringiensis biotechnology
There have been reports of insect populations resistant to a particular toxin showing resistance to other toxins to which they have not previously been exposed, a term known as ‘cross-resistance’ (Pereira et al. 2008; Sayyed et al. 2008; Gong et al. 2010; Xu et al. 2010). There have been a number of proposed modes of resistance of insect pests to Bt toxins including reduction of binding of toxins to receptors in the midgut of insects, reduced solubilisation of protoxin, alteration of proteolytic processing of protoxins and toxin degration and or precipitation by proteases (Bruce et al.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 260(1):9–16 Heckel DG, Gahan LJ, Baxter SW, Zhao JZ, Shelton AM, Gould F, Tabashnik BE (2007) The diversity of Bt resistance genes in species of Lepidoptera. J Invertebr Pathol 95(3):192–197 Herrero S, Gonzalez-Cabrera J, Ferre J, Bakker PL, Maagd RA de (2004) Mutations in the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin demonstrate the role of domains II and III in specificity towards Spodoptera exigua larvae. Biochem J 384:507–513 Hilbert DW, Piggot PJ (2004) Compartmentalization of gene expression during Bacillus subtilis spore formation.
As well as the Cry toxins Bt produces additional virulence factors including phospholipase C (Palvannan and Boopathy 2005; Martin et al. 2010), proteases (Hajaij-Ellouze et al. 2006; Brar et al. 2009; Infante et al. 2010) and hemolysins (Gominet et al. 2001; Nisnevitch et al. 2010). The virulence factors are controlled by the pleiotropic regulator PlcR and it has been demonstrated that cytotoxicity of Bt is PlcR dependent (Ramarao and Lereclus 2006). Deletion of the plcR gene has been shown to result in a drastic reduction in the virulence of Bt in orally infected insects (Salamitou et al.