Download Being and Nothingness: A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology by Jean Paul Sartre, Hazel Barnes PDF

By Jean Paul Sartre, Hazel Barnes

Being and Nothingness

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Extra resources for Being and Nothingness: A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology

Sample text

Or lower chances of his success will depend on the practical wisdom which he can bring to bear in his evaluations of his own psychic being. At the same time neither he nor the psychiatrist can analyze the pre-reflective consciousness, the patient because he is this consciousness, the analyst because he can know it only as object whereas its being is pure subjectivity. Both patient and analyst must attempt to judge the acts of his consciousness through its effects as revealed in the outside world and in the Ego.

In a particular object one can always distinguish qualities like color, odor, etc. And proceeding from these, one can always determine an essence which they imply, as a sign implies its meaning. The totality "object-essence" makes an organized whole. The essence is not in the object; it is the meaning of the object, the principle of the series of appear­ ances which disclose it. But being is neither one of the object's qualities, capable of being apprehended among others, nor a meaning of the object.

Ncvertheless consciousnesses are particular since they appear at a definite xxxviii II ,i I ~ II I II ,II L I BEING AND NOTHINGNESS time and place, thus nihilating Being from a particular point of view. " But if I say "con­ sciousness of me" and if you say "consciousness of me," our conscious­ nesscs are as distinct as the Egos of which they are conscious. What then becomes of the unity of the personality in this conception? Consciousness acts as a unity, and since either directly or indirectly through the Ego consciousness chooses its way of being, in every exter­ nal or psychic act-in this sense personality is one.

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