By M. B. Singh, R. B. Knox (auth.), David L. Mulcahy, Gabriella Bergamini Mulcahy, Ercole Ottaviano (eds.)
In reputation of the Forgotten iteration D. L. MULCAHyl Pollen was once lengthy believed to serve basically a unmarried functionality, that of offering male gametes to the egge A secondary and usually missed worth of pollen is that it serves to dam the transmission of many faulty alleles and gene combos into the following iteration. This latter functionality comes approximately just because pollen tubes wearing faulty haploid genotypes often fail to accomplish progress during the complete size of the fashion. besides the fact that, the worthy outcomes of this pollen choice are diluted by way of the truth that a similar deleterious genotypes are usually transmitted throughout the egg at strictly mendelian frequencies (Khush, 1973). Gene expression within the pollen could hence no less than seem to be a phenomenon of trivial outcome. certainly, Heslop-Harrison (1979) rightly termed the gametophytic component to the angiosperm existence cycle, the "forgotten generation." This forget, in spite of the fact that, took place regardless of sophisticated yet consistent symptoms that pollen is the location of severe gene task and choice. for instance, Mok and Peloquin (1975) established that fairly heterozygous diploid pollen indicates heterotic features while quite homozygous diploid pOllen doesn't. This was once facts confident that genes are expressed (that is, transcribed and translated) within the pollen. 1 division of Botany, college of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003, united states viii although, the results for pollen biology of even this fresh and renowned research weren't broadly recognized.
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Extra resources for Biotechnology and Ecology of Pollen: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Biotechnology and Ecology of Pollen, 9–11 July, 1985, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
4) Zamir D. (1983) Pollen gene expression and selection: applications in plant breeding. O. J. Orton (Eds), Isozymes in Plant Genetics and Breeding, part A: 313-329. L. (1983) Hanipulation of gametophytic populations. Efficiency in Plant Breeding. G. (Eds). Pudoc Wageningen. , Ottaviano E. and Faini D. (1975) Genetic variability of gametophytic growth rate in maize. Theor. Appl. Genetics, 46: 289-294. , Zamir D. M. (1981) Evidence for extensive overlap of sporophytic and gametophytic gene expression in Licopersicon esculentum.
The results are summarized in table 1. Table 1. EFFECTS OF GAMETOPHYTIC RECURRENT SELECTION Families from mean 1 ) BASE POPUL. 31 2) APEX POPUL. 53 11. 02 11. 68 n . s . 04 n . s . 05) . The mean value of gametophytic competitive ability in the progeny produced at higher selection intensity is higher than that of the progeny produced at low selection intensity, showing that the variability of the character is largely based on genes expressed in the gametophytic phase. Sporophytic effects could also play an important role; however, considering the selection procedure used, they should not contribute to the selection response obtained.
537. The Authors are grateful to F. Salamini for furnishing most of the de material. L. (1979) The rise of the Angiosperms: a gene cological factor. Science, 206: 20-23. , and Ottaviano E. (1985). The extent of gametophytic-sporophytic gene expression in maize (in press). L. (1980) Pollen tube growth rate in Zea mays: implications for genetic improvement of crops. Science, 210: 437-438. 4) Zamir D. (1983) Pollen gene expression and selection: applications in plant breeding. O. J. Orton (Eds), Isozymes in Plant Genetics and Breeding, part A: 313-329.